Anaphylaxis is an severe, whole-body allergic reaction. After being exposed to a substance like bee sting venom, the person's immune system becomes sensitized to that allergen. On a later exposure, an allergic reaction may occur. This reaction is sudden, severe, and involves the whole body.
The symptoms, risk for complications without treatment, and treatment are the same, however, for both types of reactions.
Anaphylaxis can occur in response to any allergen. Common causes include:
Anaphylaxis rarely occurs. However, it is life-threatening and can occur at any time. Risks include history of any type of allergic reaction.
SymptomsSymptoms develop rapidly, often within seconds or minutes. They may include the following:
- Abdominal pain or cramping
- Abnormal (high-pitched) breathing sounds
- Difficulty breathing
- Fainting, light-headedness, dizziness
- Hives, itchiness
- Nasal congestion
- Nausea, vomiting
- Sensation of feeling the heart beat (palpitations)
- Skin redness
- Slurred speech
Exams and TestsSigns include:
- Abormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia)
- Fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema)
- Low blood pressure
- Mental confusion
- Rapid pulse
- Skin that is blue from lack of oxygen or pale from shock
- Swelling (angioedema) in the throat that may be severe enough to block the airway
- Swelling of the eyes or face
TreatmentAnaphylaxis is an emergency condition requiring immediate professional medical attention. Call 911 immediately.
Check the ABCs (airway, breathing, and circulation from Basic Life Support) in all suspected anaphylactic reactions.
CPR should be started, if needed. People with known severe allergic reactions may carry an Epi-Pen or other allergy kit, and should be helped if necessary.
Paramedics or physicians may place a tube through the nose or mouth into the airways (endotracheal intubation) or perform emergency surgery to place a tube directly into the trachea (tracheostomy or cricothyrotomy).
Epinephrine should be given by injection in the thigh muscle right away. This opens the airways and raises the blood pressure by tightening blood vessels.
Treatment for shock includes fluids through a vein (intravenous) and medications that support the actions of the heart and circulatory system.
The person may receive antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine, and corticosteroids, such as prednisone, to further reduce symptoms (after lifesaving measures and epinephrine are administered).
Outlook (Prognosis)Anaphylaxis is a severe disorder that can be life-threatening without prompt treatment. However, symptoms usually get better with the right therapy, so it is important to act right away.
- Airway blockage
- Cardiac arrest (no effective heartbeat)
- Respiratory arrest (no breathing)
PreventionAvoid known allergens. Any person experiencing an allergic reaction should be monitored, although monitoring may be done at home in mild cases.
Occasionally, people who have a history of drug allergies may safely be given the medication they are allergic to after being pretreated with corticosteroids (prednisone) and antihistamines (diphenhydramine).
People who have a history of allergy to insect bites/stings should carry (and use) an emergency kit containing injectable epinephrine and chewable antihistamine. They should also wear a MedicAlert or similar bracelet or necklace stating their allergy.